2015 Agreement Mali

The agreement is a product of its time that focuses on insecurity and separatism in the north of the country, which was the hot spot during the negotiation process. It did not have the foresight to outline the impact on security and development on Mali`s central regions and failed to adapt to the ongoing conflict. Indeed, the emphasis on reconciliation in the agreement only mentions the “Azawad problem” and refers to a presumed state declared by Tuareg-led rebels that encompasses the northern regions of Mali. The agreement and the roadmaps that followed remained silent on inter-ethnic conflicts in the central regions between the nomadic herders of Fulani (Peuhl) and the peasants Dogon and Bambara. Although these ethnic tensions have intensified since 2015, the lack of agreement strategies to alleviate existing ethnic tensions in central regions has made the document deficient from the outset. Critics accuse the agreement alone of inciting other minority groups to use violence to make concessions. Peace agreements aimed at the transformation of a conflict must somehow address the underlying issues. In Mali, the main demands of northern rebel groups have been discussed in previous peace processes: the special status of the North, the decentralization of power, the reduced presence and recomposition of Mali`s armed forces and more economic development funds10 The 2015 Bamako Agreement addresses these issues, but remains vague on how to resolve them.11 Some provisions have also been described as counterproductive.11 Some provisions have also been described as counterproductive.11 – So whereas the creation of regional assemblies may be desired, the dynamics in the northern regions, including the many intergroup and intergroup tensions and conflicts, can instead intensify with regional assemblies.12 In addition, key issues such as terrorism and human trafficking have hardly been addressed, and the agreement does not address two major parallel conflicts: the ideological challenge linked to Islamist groups; and intergroups and intergroups within northern groups.13 Could improved implementation of the agreement help to solve the problem of jihadist uprisings spreading to other parts of northern Mali? Although the fight against terrorism is attracting the attention of the international community, it is only one of the problems facing northern Mali today.